Chad is a landlocked country located in Northern Central Africa. The country derived its name from the Lake Chad which flows through the western border with Niger and Nigeria. The country is bordered by Libya in the north, Sudan in the east, Cameron and Nigeria on the west and Central African Republic to the south.
Chad features a rich cultural heritage due to the Diasporas of ethnic groups that inhabits the country. Arabs inhabits the north and eastern parts of the country while Africans dominate the south. Muslims make up 59 percent of the populace, followed by 17 percent Christians, the rest follow traditional religions. The official languages of the regions are French and Arabic, in addition Chadic languages like Hausa are also spoken.
The majority of the population relies on agriculture and livestock raising for livelihood. The fertile lands are confined to the southern parts of the country where rich yields of Sorghum and millet are harvested. The northern regions feature ideal pasturelands where large herds of cattle, goats and donkeys are reared. The country is characterized by a large expanse of arid expanse interspersed by oases. Dates and Legumes are grown in the region but only when supported by a nearby oasis. Before the oil industry was developed, Cotton was the dominant industry accounting for nearly 80% of export earnings. The imports in the year 2000 were $290 million and exports amounted to $183 million. Exxon Mobil leads a consortium of companies that invested $3.7 billion to develop the reserves at an estimated 1 billion barrels. A pipeline construction that linked southern Chad with terminals on the coast of Cameroon saw the booming of the oil industry.